Ankylosing Spondylitis/Axial Spondyloarthritis
What is ankylosing spondylitis/axial spondyloarthritis (AS)?
What are the symptoms?
What causes it?
How is ankylosing spondylitis/axial spondyloarthritis diagnosed?
Many people in the early stages of AS think they have common back pain and do not seek help. However it is important to have AS diagnosed as early as possible as there are many effective treatments available. Your doctor will diagnose AS from your symptoms, a physical examination and blood tests to measure levels of inflammation. Your doctor may also order x-rays of your spine, but these tests can all be normal in the early stages. If your doctor suspects you have AS you should be referred to a rheumatologist, a doctor who specialises in arthritis.
What will happen to me?
With the right treatment, most people with AS can lead full and active lives. Many people find there are times when their symptoms worsen (known as a ‘flare’), and times when their symptoms get better. In most cases AS can be well controlled with treatment and the pain improves over time. However some people may have severe, long lasting pain. As a result of the inflammation in the spine, new bone may grow around the joints. This leads to permanent stiffness in the back or neck of some people with AS. In severe cases this extra bone can fuse the bones in the spine together, stopping the spine from moving. Fusion of the spine can lead to a bent or forward stooped posture. This used to be common but can now usually be prevented by starting proper treatment as early as possible.
Is there a cure for AS?
What treatments are there for AS?
Your rheumatologist will tailor your treatment to your symptoms and the severity of your condition. There is no way of predicting exactly which treatment will work best for you. Each treatment has its own benefits and risks. Your doctor may need to trial several different treatments before finding the one that is right for you. Treatment for AS usually involves:
Physiotherapy exercises (such as hydrotherapy or exercises in water), to keep the spine flexible and improve posture.
Medicines, such as: